Tóth, B, Fazekas, M, Czibik, Á, Tóth, I. J. (2014). Toolkit for detecting collusive bidding in public procurement – With examples from Hungary. GTI-WP/2014:02, Budapest: Government Transparency Institute.
Based on a synthesis of literature to-date, this paper provides a flexible indicator set deployable as a toolkit across many countries for detecting collusive bidding in public procurement. While no one-size-fits-all approach exists in detecting collusion, robust elementary indicators and analytical tools for adapting them to local contexts can be developed. The paper delivers a conceptual definition and theoretical discussion for each indicator as well as a complex empirical assessment using data on over 75,000 contract awards in Hungary between 2005 and 2012. Indicators are identified, selected, and tested based on relevant academic literature, current best practice policy among competition authorities, court material, and interview evidence from experts and key stakeholders.